Krystal Nanan

Krystal is a civil engineer and project manager with an MSc in Construction Engineering and Management. Her experience includes the project management of major infrastructure projects, construction supervision, and the design of various infrastructure elements including roadway, pavement, traffic safety elements and drainage. Krystal is also a published author with the Transportation Research Board in Washington, D.C.
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Articles by Krystal Nanan


Ultrasonic Crack Inspection: How to Avoid Pipeline Failures Ultrasonic Crack Inspection: How to Avoid Pipeline Failures Ultrasonic Crack Inspection: How to Avoid Pipeline Failures Ultrasonic Crack Inspection: How to Avoid Pipeline Failures


Ultrasonic technology uses sound waves to detect cracks and other pipeline defects. The early identification of these cracks is essential...

QUIZ: 11 Questions to Test Your Underwater Inspection Knowledge QUIZ: 11 Questions to Test Your Underwater Inspection Knowledge QUIZ: 11 Questions to Test Your Underwater Inspection Knowledge QUIZ: 11 Questions to Test Your Underwater Inspection Knowledge


Underwater inspections can be used to help maintain offshore and underwater structures and detect corrosion.

The Dangers of Pipeline Flange Corrosion and What to Do About It The Dangers of Pipeline Flange Corrosion and What to Do About It The Dangers of Pipeline Flange Corrosion and What to Do About It The Dangers of Pipeline Flange Corrosion and What to Do About It


Corroded flanges can result in containment loss and leaks. The most common corrosion prevention methods revolve around proper sealing of...

Quiz: Anti-Graffiti Coatings and Corrosion Quiz: Anti-Graffiti Coatings and Corrosion Quiz: Anti-Graffiti Coatings and Corrosion Quiz: Anti-Graffiti Coatings and Corrosion


Anti-graffiti coatings can be used to help lower cleaning and repainting costs and deter further vandalism. Some coatings may also assist...

Beginners Guide to Becoming an Offshore Coating Inspector Beginners Guide to Becoming an Offshore Coating Inspector Beginners Guide to Becoming an Offshore Coating Inspector Beginners Guide to Becoming an Offshore Coating Inspector


Offshore coating inspectors must possess sound knowledge of various coating types, their applications and different types of defects. This...

A Look at Digital Radiography for Corrosion Inspection A Look at Digital Radiography for Corrosion Inspection A Look at Digital Radiography for Corrosion Inspection A Look at Digital Radiography for Corrosion Inspection


Digital radiography uses X-ray radiation and is faster, safer and more efficient than conventional film radiography, thus making it an...

What New Materials Science Studies Suggest About Corrosion Control in the Future What New Materials Science Studies Suggest About Corrosion Control in the Future What New Materials Science Studies Suggest About Corrosion Control in the Future What New Materials Science Studies Suggest About Corrosion Control in the Future


New materials science research can ultimately lead to the development of better corrosion analyses, protection methods, and...

QUIZ: Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) and How to Prevent It QUIZ: Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) and How to Prevent It QUIZ: Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) and How to Prevent It QUIZ: Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) and How to Prevent It


Having an understanding of corrosion under insulation (CUI) is vital for anyone in the corrosion industry. Test your knowledge of the...

INFOGRAPHIC: The Flixborough Disaster INFOGRAPHIC: The Flixborough Disaster INFOGRAPHIC: The Flixborough Disaster INFOGRAPHIC: The Flixborough Disaster


In 1974, a chemical plant in Flixborough, England exploded, resulting in multiple deaths and millions of dollars in damages. This disaster...

4 Types of Concrete Floor Coatings (And What You Should Know About Each) 4 Types of Concrete Floor Coatings (And What You Should Know About Each) 4 Types of Concrete Floor Coatings (And What You Should Know About Each) 4 Types of Concrete Floor Coatings (And What You Should Know About Each)


4 Types of Concrete Floor Coatings (And What You Should Know About Each). Key types of floor coatings and applications, best uses,...

Quality Assurance in the Coatings Industry: A Job Description Quality Assurance in the Coatings Industry: A Job Description Quality Assurance in the Coatings Industry: A Job Description Quality Assurance in the Coatings Industry: A Job Description


Quality assurance specialists are usually employed or subcontracted by an asset owner. In the paint and coatings industry, they verify that...

Quiz: Cathodic Protection as a Corrosion Prevention Method Quiz: Cathodic Protection as a Corrosion Prevention Method Quiz: Cathodic Protection as a Corrosion Prevention Method Quiz: Cathodic Protection as a Corrosion Prevention Method


Having an understanding of cathodic protection is vital for anyone in the corrosion industry. Test your knowledge of how cathodic...

An Introduction to Graphene Coatings An Introduction to Graphene Coatings An Introduction to Graphene Coatings An Introduction to Graphene Coatings


Graphene’s multifunctional properties, including increased durability, chemical resistance and corrosion resistance make it an ideal...

Understanding Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals: Why You Should Understand These Key Differences Understanding Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals: Why You Should Understand These Key Differences Understanding Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals: Why You Should Understand These Key Differences Understanding Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals: Why You Should Understand These Key Differences


Ferrous metals contain iron while non-ferrous metals do not. This minor difference, however, gives each type of metal distinct...

Calculating Tensile Stress: Why It Needs to Be Done Now Calculating Tensile Stress: Why It Needs to Be Done Now Calculating Tensile Stress: Why It Needs to Be Done Now Calculating Tensile Stress: Why It Needs to Be Done Now


Calculating and measuring tensile stresses are vital in predicting the behavior of various types of materials. Designers and engineers...

Understanding the 3 Types of Tensile Strength Understanding the 3 Types of Tensile Strength Understanding the 3 Types of Tensile Strength Understanding the 3 Types of Tensile Strength


The three types of tensile strengths are yield, ultimate, and fracture strength. Each of these mechanical properties defines the various...

Stress Concentration: Top 4 Tips to Reduce Stress Concentration in Machine Parts Stress Concentration: Top 4 Tips to Reduce Stress Concentration in Machine Parts Stress Concentration: Top 4 Tips to Reduce Stress Concentration in Machine Parts Stress Concentration: Top 4 Tips to Reduce Stress Concentration in Machine Parts


Stress concentration reduction in machine parts usually involves providing a smooth path for stress to flow through the component. This can...

Preventing Corrosion with Thermal Insulating Coatings Preventing Corrosion with Thermal Insulating Coatings Preventing Corrosion with Thermal Insulating Coatings Preventing Corrosion with Thermal Insulating Coatings


Thermal insulating coatings are effective at preventing corrosion under insulation because their lack of fibrous materials and a lower...

How to Get Started in a Career as a Materials Scientist How to Get Started in a Career as a Materials Scientist How to Get Started in a Career as a Materials Scientist How to Get Started in a Career as a Materials Scientist


Students interested in pursuing a career in this field must possess a natural aptitude for science and mathematics. Additionally, qualities...

Metallizing 101 Metallizing 101 Metallizing 101 Metallizing 101


Metallizing is a general term used to describe the process of applying a metallic coating on the surface of an object. It involves several...

Corrosion Resistance in Reinforced Concrete Structures Corrosion Resistance in Reinforced Concrete Structures Corrosion Resistance in Reinforced Concrete Structures Corrosion Resistance in Reinforced Concrete Structures


Although steel reinforcement is embedded in the concrete, it is still vulnerable to corrosion. This corrosion deteriorates the bars and...

Corrosion Prevention in Aboveground and Underground Tanks Corrosion Prevention in Aboveground and Underground Tanks Corrosion Prevention in Aboveground and Underground Tanks Corrosion Prevention in Aboveground and Underground Tanks


Corrosion in aboveground and underground storage tanks (ASTs and USTs) can have devastating effects. Using corrosion resistant tank...

Quality Control: Protect Your Pipelines with Active Corrosion Protection Quality Control: Protect Your Pipelines with Active Corrosion Protection Quality Control: Protect Your Pipelines with Active Corrosion Protection Quality Control: Protect Your Pipelines with Active Corrosion Protection


Active corrosion protection is so named because the metal’s surface is allowed to come into contact with corrosive elements while...

Ice Pigging: The Benefits to Using This Icy Pipe Cleaning Method Ice Pigging: The Benefits to Using This Icy Pipe Cleaning Method Ice Pigging: The Benefits to Using This Icy Pipe Cleaning Method Ice Pigging: The Benefits to Using This Icy Pipe Cleaning Method


Benefits of ice pigging include reduced water use, shorter disruptions, less downtime, lower probability of pipe damage, and minimal...

Waterborne Coatings: Environmental and Health Regulations Meet Coatings Technology Waterborne Coatings: Environmental and Health Regulations Meet Coatings Technology Waterborne Coatings: Environmental and Health Regulations Meet Coatings Technology Waterborne Coatings: Environmental and Health Regulations Meet Coatings Technology


The minimal use or lack of solvents makes waterborne coatings a viable way to meet or exceed stringent environmental and personal health...

How a Liquid-Infused Porous Surface Coating on Steel Can Resist Biofouling How a Liquid-Infused Porous Surface Coating on Steel Can Resist Biofouling How a Liquid-Infused Porous Surface Coating on Steel Can Resist Biofouling How a Liquid-Infused Porous Surface Coating on Steel Can Resist Biofouling


Liquid-infused coatings improve upon traditional anti-fouling paints and coatings. They consist of a liquid lubricant that is stabilized...

The Tuberculation Battle: How to Effectively Use the Unidirectional Flushing Method The Tuberculation Battle: How to Effectively Use the Unidirectional Flushing Method The Tuberculation Battle: How to Effectively Use the Unidirectional Flushing Method The Tuberculation Battle: How to Effectively Use the Unidirectional Flushing Method


Tuberculation is a common problem associated with aging metal iron pipes. In an attempt to improve operational efficiency and overall water...

Increased Rates of Copper Corrosion in the Zone of Aeration Explained Increased Rates of Copper Corrosion in the Zone of Aeration Explained Increased Rates of Copper Corrosion in the Zone of Aeration Explained Increased Rates of Copper Corrosion in the Zone of Aeration Explained


Variation in environmental conditions tends to create conditions ideal for the formation of differential aeration cells in the zone of...

Your Comprehensive Guide to Waterproofing with Bituminous Paint Your Comprehensive Guide to Waterproofing with Bituminous Paint Your Comprehensive Guide to Waterproofing with Bituminous Paint Your Comprehensive Guide to Waterproofing with Bituminous Paint


Bituminous coatings are effective at waterproofing and protecting various substrates, particularly metal, from the adverse effects of...

IoT for Corrosion Monitoring in the Oil and Gas Industry IoT for Corrosion Monitoring in the Oil and Gas Industry IoT for Corrosion Monitoring in the Oil and Gas Industry IoT for Corrosion Monitoring in the Oil and Gas Industry


IoT uses electronic sensors connected directly to assets to gather and report critical information to remote locations. This permits...

How Insulating Coatings Are Winning Against Corrosion Under Insulation How Insulating Coatings Are Winning Against Corrosion Under Insulation How Insulating Coatings Are Winning Against Corrosion Under Insulation How Insulating Coatings Are Winning Against Corrosion Under Insulation


Conventional thermal insulation materials can promote corrosion under insulation (CUI). Insulating coatings are quickly gaining popularity...

Top 5 Corrosion Threats Caused by Neglect Top 5 Corrosion Threats Caused by Neglect Top 5 Corrosion Threats Caused by Neglect Top 5 Corrosion Threats Caused by Neglect


While corrosion is mostly considered to be the result of natural phenomena, it can also be a consequence of neglectful human behavior, such...

Top 4 Tips for Entry-level Corrosion Engineers Top 4 Tips for Entry-level Corrosion Engineers Top 4 Tips for Entry-level Corrosion Engineers Top 4 Tips for Entry-level Corrosion Engineers


The top four tips (mentoring, asking questions, continued professional development, teamwork) that entry-level corrosion engineers can use...

The Relationship Between Corrosion Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking The Relationship Between Corrosion Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking The Relationship Between Corrosion Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking The Relationship Between Corrosion Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking


While corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking can occur under different circumstances, they are part of the same continuum....

3 Truths About Titanium Dioxide Corrosion Prevention 3 Truths About Titanium Dioxide Corrosion Prevention 3 Truths About Titanium Dioxide Corrosion Prevention 3 Truths About Titanium Dioxide Corrosion Prevention


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely investigated and tested metal oxides due to its desirable properties, relatively low cost...

Hot-dip vs Cold Galvanizing: What’s the Difference? Hot-dip vs Cold Galvanizing: What’s the Difference? Hot-dip vs Cold Galvanizing: What’s the Difference? Hot-dip vs Cold Galvanizing: What’s the Difference?


There are two main methods for galvanizing steel: hot-dip galvanizing and cold galvanizing. This article looks at these two galvanizing...

How Galvanic Corrosion Can Be Used for Good How Galvanic Corrosion Can Be Used for Good How Galvanic Corrosion Can Be Used for Good How Galvanic Corrosion Can Be Used for Good


There are instances where galvanic corrosion can be used to benefit specific applications. This article describes the situations where this...

5 Ways to Avoid Galvanic Corrosion 5 Ways to Avoid Galvanic Corrosion 5 Ways to Avoid Galvanic Corrosion 5 Ways to Avoid Galvanic Corrosion


Preventing galvanic corrosion involves applying countermeasures early in the design phase. Understanding the mechanisms involved in this...

A Look at Self-Healing Metal Oxides as a Corrosion Prevention Method A Look at Self-Healing Metal Oxides as a Corrosion Prevention Method A Look at Self-Healing Metal Oxides as a Corrosion Prevention Method A Look at Self-Healing Metal Oxides as a Corrosion Prevention Method


Self-healing oxides are efficient at protecting metal surfaces due to their ability to flow and elongate as the coated metal deforms, thus...

Pitting Corrosion in Oil and Gas Wells and Pipelines Pitting Corrosion in Oil and Gas Wells and Pipelines Pitting Corrosion in Oil and Gas Wells and Pipelines Pitting Corrosion in Oil and Gas Wells and Pipelines


The hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide gases responsible for pitting are most commonly encountered in the oil and gas sector. For this...

How New Oil & Gas Extraction and Transportation Methods are Influencing Pipeline Corrosion How New Oil & Gas Extraction and Transportation Methods are Influencing Pipeline Corrosion How New Oil & Gas Extraction and Transportation Methods are Influencing Pipeline Corrosion How New Oil & Gas Extraction and Transportation Methods are Influencing Pipeline Corrosion


Advanced oil and gas extraction techniques are used to help increase the efficiency of extraction and transportation. These techniques have...

polyethylene plastic bag for VCI polyethylene plastic bag for VCI polyethylene plastic bag for VCI polyethylene plastic bag for VCI


Volatile corrosion inhibitors (VCIs) are used to provide corrosion protection to metal components in enclosed areas during long-term...

quenching metal steel quenching metal steel quenching metal steel quenching metal steel


The quenching of metals is used in the manufacture of various types of steel. The metallurgical processes involved in quenching can enhance...

Rockwell hardness scale test indenter Rockwell hardness scale test indenter Rockwell hardness scale test indenter Rockwell hardness scale test indenter


Knowing the hardness of materials is extremely useful as it assists in the selection of appropriate materials for specific applications....

6 Ways to Measure Fluid Viscosity 6 Ways to Measure Fluid Viscosity 6 Ways to Measure Fluid Viscosity 6 Ways to Measure Fluid Viscosity


Viscosity is an important fluid property that is essential for products in various industries. Dynamic viscosity and kinematic viscosity...

How Hot Shortness and Welding Affect Corrosion in Metals How Hot Shortness and Welding Affect Corrosion in Metals How Hot Shortness and Welding Affect Corrosion in Metals How Hot Shortness and Welding Affect Corrosion in Metals


Hot shortness is a welding defect that can cause cracking of the metal surface as it cools. These cracks can serve as breeding grounds for...

Metal bridge with corrosion being repaired Metal bridge with corrosion being repaired Metal bridge with corrosion being repaired Metal bridge with corrosion being repaired


The stress concentration factor (Kt) gives a clear indication of the amount of overstress at a specified location, which is used by...

buried pipeline in corrosive soil buried pipeline in corrosive soil buried pipeline in corrosive soil buried pipeline in corrosive soil


Soil corrosion is a phenomenon that involves a number of complex chemical reactions that range widely in rate and severity depending on the...

Why Do Two Dissimilar Metals Cause Corrosion? Why Do Two Dissimilar Metals Cause Corrosion? Why Do Two Dissimilar Metals Cause Corrosion? Why Do Two Dissimilar Metals Cause Corrosion?


Contact between dissimilar metals can be detrimental and result in bimetallic corrosion (also known as galvanic corrosion). This type of...

leaking copper water pipe leaking copper water pipe leaking copper water pipe leaking copper water pipe


Copper is classified as a noble metal due to its reluctance to corrode; however it has been wrongly characterized as corrosion-proof and...

5 Things to Know and Understand About Titanium Corrosion 5 Things to Know and Understand About Titanium Corrosion 5 Things to Know and Understand About Titanium Corrosion 5 Things to Know and Understand About Titanium Corrosion


Titanium is best regarded for two characteristics in particular: excellent corrosion resistance and a relatively high strength-to-density...

How Metallic Coatings Protect Metals from Corrosion How Metallic Coatings Protect Metals from Corrosion How Metallic Coatings Protect Metals from Corrosion How Metallic Coatings Protect Metals from Corrosion


Metals such as steel are prone to corrosion. Here we examine the science behind the metallic coatings that protect against corrosion.

Top 5 Applications for Ceramic Coatings Top 5 Applications for Ceramic Coatings Top 5 Applications for Ceramic Coatings Top 5 Applications for Ceramic Coatings


The versatility of ceramic coatings makes them a viable alternative to traditional organic paints. In some cases, ceramic coatings offer...

Understanding Pitting Corrosion to Prevent Catastrophic Failures Understanding Pitting Corrosion to Prevent Catastrophic Failures Understanding Pitting Corrosion to Prevent Catastrophic Failures Understanding Pitting Corrosion to Prevent Catastrophic Failures


Pitting corrosion, although relatively small in size, can result in catastrophic failures in a variety of structures. Its unpredictability...

Understanding and Preventing Fretting Corrosion Damage in Electrical Devices Understanding and Preventing Fretting Corrosion Damage in Electrical Devices Understanding and Preventing Fretting Corrosion Damage in Electrical Devices Understanding and Preventing Fretting Corrosion Damage in Electrical Devices


There are a number of measures that can be taken to mitigate the effects of fretting corrosion, which fall into two approaches: fretting...

What’s the Inside Scoop on Crevice Corrosion? What’s the Inside Scoop on Crevice Corrosion? What’s the Inside Scoop on Crevice Corrosion? What’s the Inside Scoop on Crevice Corrosion?


Crevice corrosion forms in crevices and faying surfaces between two joining metal surfaces. This article explains the factors that cause it...

The 8 Most Common Forms of Metal Corrosion The 8 Most Common Forms of Metal Corrosion The 8 Most Common Forms of Metal Corrosion The 8 Most Common Forms of Metal Corrosion


All corrosion is not equal. The type of corrosion is dependent mainly on the surrounding environment and the composition of the exposed...

The Basics of Cathodic Protection The Basics of Cathodic Protection The Basics of Cathodic Protection The Basics of Cathodic Protection


The purpose of cathodic protection (CP) is to reduce the potential difference between anodes and cathodes to a small value. Here's how it...

Q&A by Krystal Nanan


How can remote corrosion monitoring and IoT help companies maintain operations during the COVID-19 pandemic? How can remote corrosion monitoring and IoT help companies maintain operations during the COVID-19 pandemic? How can remote corrosion monitoring and IoT help companies maintain operations during the COVID-19 pandemic? How can remote corrosion monitoring and IoT help companies maintain operations during the COVID-19 pandemic?


In the wake of the recent COVID-19 coronavirus global pandemic, many companies have been forced to close their doors as governments around...

How does ultrasonic technology accurately detect corrosion and metal loss in pipeline systems? How does ultrasonic technology accurately detect corrosion and metal loss in pipeline systems? How does ultrasonic technology accurately detect corrosion and metal loss in pipeline systems? How does ultrasonic technology accurately detect corrosion and metal loss in pipeline systems?


Ultrasonic is a term used to describe the range of sound waves that possess frequencies higher than that of audible human hearing....

Does zinc rust? Does zinc rust? Does zinc rust? Does zinc rust?


The short to the question is, yes. Zinc does rust. Like all metals, zinc corrodes when exposed to air and moisture. However, this element...

Do soluble salts affect paint bonding fiberglass carbon fiber hulls? Do soluble salts affect paint bonding fiberglass carbon fiber hulls? Do soluble salts affect paint bonding fiberglass carbon fiber hulls? Do soluble salts affect paint bonding fiberglass carbon fiber hulls?


The short answer to this question is yes.The presence of soluble salts, particularly sulfates and chlorides, at the paint/hull interface...

How can I determine the endurance limit of steel and how does it get measured properly? How can I determine the endurance limit of steel and how does it get measured properly? How can I determine the endurance limit of steel and how does it get measured properly? How can I determine the endurance limit of steel and how does it get measured properly?


Fatigue is defined as the damage that occurs in a material due to the repetitive application of loads that may be substantially below its...

What are the benefits of using refractory metals? What are the benefits of using refractory metals? What are the benefits of using refractory metals? What are the benefits of using refractory metals?


Refractory metals are a classification of metallic elements that possess properties that make them more durable and resilient than other...

How and why should I measure the strength of a protective coating? How and why should I measure the strength of a protective coating? How and why should I measure the strength of a protective coating? How and why should I measure the strength of a protective coating?


Modern industrial processes continue to place heavy demands on tools, equipment and structures. As a result, the protective coatings used...

What are the key benefits to using non-intrusive inspections on the condition of pressure equipment? What are the key benefits to using non-intrusive inspections on the condition of pressure equipment? What are the key benefits to using non-intrusive inspections on the condition of pressure equipment? What are the key benefits to using non-intrusive inspections on the condition of pressure equipment?


It is essential to perform regular inspections on pressure equipment to ensure that their mechanical and structural integrity meet safety...

How do self-healing metal oxides protect against corrosion? How do self-healing metal oxides protect against corrosion? How do self-healing metal oxides protect against corrosion? How do self-healing metal oxides protect against corrosion?


Self-healing metal oxide is a term used to describe a special category of metal oxides that are known to exhibit extraordinary corrosion...

What are the different Xylan coatings and how do I decide which is best? What are the different Xylan coatings and how do I decide which is best? What are the different Xylan coatings and how do I decide which is best? What are the different Xylan coatings and how do I decide which is best?


Xylan is an industrial dry film lubricant consisting primarily of one or more fluoropolymers including polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE),...

How can I avoid galvanic corrosion? How can I avoid galvanic corrosion? How can I avoid galvanic corrosion? How can I avoid galvanic corrosion?


Galvanic corrosion is a destructive electrochemical process that occurs when dissimilar metals are in direct or indirect contact with each...

Can laser scanning be used for corrosion assessment with corrosion under insulation? Can laser scanning be used for corrosion assessment with corrosion under insulation? Can laser scanning be used for corrosion assessment with corrosion under insulation? Can laser scanning be used for corrosion assessment with corrosion under insulation?


Laser scanning (profilometry) is a relatively new technique used for nondestructive testing and evaluation of numerous structures. It...

What is the significance of the high temperature range when considering corrosion under insulation (CUI)? What is the significance of the high temperature range when considering corrosion under insulation (CUI)? What is the significance of the high temperature range when considering corrosion under insulation (CUI)? What is the significance of the high temperature range when considering corrosion under insulation (CUI)?


Corrosion under insulation (CUI), like other forms of corrosion, is electrochemical in nature and therefore is significantly influenced by...

What kind of tool can measure a polarization curve in coulombs per second? What kind of tool can measure a polarization curve in coulombs per second? What kind of tool can measure a polarization curve in coulombs per second? What kind of tool can measure a polarization curve in coulombs per second?


The tool used to measure a polarization current (1 amp = 1 coulomb per second) is called a potentiostat. A potentiostat is an essential...

How should I choose between a polyurethane and an epoxy coating on concrete floors? How should I choose between a polyurethane and an epoxy coating on concrete floors? How should I choose between a polyurethane and an epoxy coating on concrete floors? How should I choose between a polyurethane and an epoxy coating on concrete floors?


There is no shortage of options when it comes to concrete floor coatings, which are generally used to protect concrete floors from...

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