Full Penetration Weld

Definition - What does Full Penetration Weld mean?

A full penetration weld is a type of weld that has completely consumed the root of the joint. A full penetration weld is often a requirement for joints that will be subjected to high stresses because it typically has higher strengths than a partial penetration weld.

Corrosionpedia explains Full Penetration Weld

A full penetration weld is a popular type of weld because it is stronger than a partial penetration weld for several reasons:

  • Partial penetration welds do not fully consume the joint, so they are not as thick as the base material next to it. This makes the weld more likely to have less strength than the base material because it doesn't have the extra volume to resist stresses.
  • Partial penetration welds have an unconsumed joint line that can act as a geometric stress concentrator. This can make the weld more likely to fail than the base material adjacent to it.

A full penetration weld can be used to describe either a groove weld or a fillet weld. For instance, a full penetration butt joint weld is a butt joint that requires the weld material to completely consume the entirety of the faying surfaces of the materials butted up against one another.

Another benefit of a full penetration weld over a partial penetration weld is corrosion resistance. A partial penetration weld leaves an unfused joint line that can be a collection point for corrosives and create potential differentials that can ultimately lead to corrosion. If welded properly, a full penetration weld does not have this corrosion risk.

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