Ferrous metals are metals that contain iron as the primary element, such as stainless steel. They are known for their mechanical properties, such as high tensile strength. They are also magnetic and can be easily shaped or formed.
Some common examples of ferrous metals include carbon steel, stainless steel, cast iron and wrought iron. Due to their strength and durability, ferrous metals are widely used in the construction, automotive and manufacturing industries; they are suitable for architectural and structural uses such as skyscrapers, bridges and railways.
Ferrous metals also have magnetic properties. However, their high carbon content means many ferrous metals are prone to rusting. The exceptions to this are stainless steel, which doesn’t rust because of the chromium, and wrought iron, which doesn’t rust due to the high pure iron content. Chromium forms a passive oxide layer, which increases stainless steel's corrosion resistance. Iron in pure form, i.e., wrought iron, has very high corrosion resistance. The example of this is the Iron Pillar in Delhi, India. The steel making starts first from iron making as pig iron.
Here are some examples of ferrous metals and their uses in the construction industry:
Steel: Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, with varying amounts of other elements such as chromium, manganese and nickel. It is commonly used in construction for structural support, such as beams, columns and trusses. Steel is also used for reinforcing concrete structures, such as in the form of rebar, and for roofing and siding materials.
Cast iron: Cast iron is a strong, brittle and corrosion-resistant material that is used in the construction of pipes, valves, and fittings for plumbing and heating systems. Cast iron is also used for manhole covers, grates, and other drainage components due to its high resistance to wear and tear.
Wrought iron: Wrought iron is a tough, malleable, and ductile material that is used for decorative purposes in construction, such as in ornamental railings, gates and fences. It is also used for structural components, such as in the form of beams and columns.
Stainless steel: Stainless steel is a corrosion-resistant alloy of iron, chromium, and other elements, such as nickel and molybdenum. It is used extensively in construction for applications where corrosion resistance is essential, such as in the construction of bridges, tunnels and coastal structures.
Carbon steel: Carbon steel is an alloy of iron and carbon that is used for a wide range of construction applications, such as in the manufacturing of bolts, nuts and screws. It is also used for piping and tubing and for the fabrication of various components and structures.
In summary, ferrous metals are essential materials in the construction industry due to their strength, durability and resistance to corrosion. Steel, cast iron, wrought iron, stainless steel and carbon steel are some examples of ferrous metals used in construction.