Definition - What does Titration mean?

Titration is a laboratory technique where a solution of known volume and concentration is used to determine the concentration of another unknown solution. An oxidation-reduction reaction or acid-base neutralization occurs between the two solutions and the known quantities are used to calculate the unknown. The standard solution of known concentration is referred to as the titrant or titrator while the unknown concentration solution is called the titrand or the analyte.

Titration is also known as titrimetry.

Corrosionpedia explains Titration

A typical arrangement for titration consists of a beaker containing a precise volume of the titrand (unknown concentration) and an indicator. A calibrated pipette containing the titrant is carefully mounted above the beaker. Small amounts of the titrant are carefully added to titrand in the beaker until the indicator changes its color. The color change signifies the arrival of the endpoint of the titration. Once the endpoint is reached, the volume of the titrant (reactant) used is recorded and used to calculate the concentration of the unknown solution.

Various types of titration include:

  • Acid-base titration
  • Redox titration
  • Gas phase titration
  • Complexometric titration
  • Zeta potential titration
  • Assay titration

These employ different techniques and the choice depends on the application or the goal of the titration. The acid-base and redox titrations are the most commonly used types. The different procedures employ different types of indicators to reflect the reaction endpoint. The indications range from color changes for the acid-base titration to electrode potential measurements for the redox titration. Typical indications are achieved by measuring or using:

  • Color indicator
  • Potentiometer
  • pH meter
  • Conductivity
  • Ionic strength

Titration finds many uses in industries, such as:

  • Determination of levels of corrosive compounds (sulfur) in crude oil and petroleum products
  • Determination of acid and base numbers of petroleum products
  • Determination of hydroxyl
  • Determining oxygen concentration in water
  • Medical procedures to detect diabetes
  • Corrosion measurements
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