Definition - What does Necking mean?

Necking is a type of plastic deformation observed in ductile materials subjected to tensile stress. This deformation is characterized by a localized reduction in the cross-sectional area of the material, giving it a "V" or "neck" shape. During necking, a large amount of local strain is concentrated in a small region of the material; therefore, necking is often closely associated with yielding.

Corrosionpedia explains Necking

Stress and strain are important concepts in materials engineering and can be related through a stress-strain curve or plot. The curve is obtained by observing and measuring the deformation in a material when a load is applied gradually to it. For ductile materials, the resulting curve shows three stages:

  1. A linear elastic region where the material undergoes elastic deformation (characterized by a linear graph).
  2. The strain hardening region that occurs when the specimen is subjected to the maximum stress it can sustain (also called the ultimate tensile strength or UTS).
  3. The necking region where the neck forms. At this point, the stress that the material can sustain decreases rapidly as it approaches fracture.
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